The primary source I chose to research is The Act of Supremacy 1534. In the new year another session of parliament was summoned to enact the necessary legislation to break formally the remaining ties which bound England to Rome, again under Cromwell's meticulous supervision. France, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire all had their own issues to deal with and probably could not have carried out an attack on England, which would have required a sea crossing against a navy that had a very good reputation in Europe. One important point to note is that the Act effectively made it treasonable to support the authority of the Pope over the Church of England. Also, with the removal of Papal authority, the Roman Catholic Church Canon Laws, and immunity provided to clergy, Parliament and state powers were now more centralized. She later married Henry in 1509. There, in turn, as the others were forced to watch, each was half hanged, cut down while still alive and conscious, and then castrated, disembowelled, and finally, after his entrails had been burned before his face, quartered and beheaded.
The king used the fact that Catherine was unable to produce sons as heirs and too old to do so, in order to ask for the annulment in hopes to marry his current love interest, Anne Boleyn. Status: Amended The Act of Supremacy 1558 1 Eliz 1 c 1 , sometimes referred to as the Act of Supremacy 1559, is an of the , passed under the auspices of. At the same time, however, had his eye on the wealth of the church, particularly the property of the monasteries. The English Reformation is far more complicated, however, involving not only the marital woes of much-married Henry, but also a turbulent theological and political situation in England. This gave Cromwell huge powers and he was quick in using them. This move eventually led to the dissolution of the monasteries beginning in 1536, which gave Henry money for his treasuries to fight wars against the French for land in Normandy that had previously belonged to England. Pre-Reformation, the Pope had little ability to enforce his authority in England if the king was not compliant.
The act also made it a crime to assert the authority of any foreign prince, , or other authority, and was aimed at abolishing the authority of the in England. He had sought in vain for papal approval for his divorce from , and when it became clear that approval would not be forthcoming, took matters into his own hands. She hid the head in some place where no one found it. Jane Seymour Jane Seymour was Henry's third wife whom in which he had his son with in 1537. This act set the order of prayer to be used in the English Book of Common Prayer between the religions of Catholicism and Calvinism. Pope lost a lot of power.
In 1532, the English church agreed to surrender its independence as well as authority regarding canon law to the monarch. In addition to these theological rumblings, there was a growing feeling of nationalism, a higher devotion to England than to the Roman church. Mary I Elizabeth I becoming the Governor of the Church Elizabeth I created the Oath of Supremacy which made the required anyone in church or public office to swear to allegiance to the monarch as head of The Church of England. The words at the end were repealed in 1641 by the Act 16 Ch. Therefore, the Act of Supremacy is officially dated 1558. By 1969 all save section 8 had been repealed by various acts.
Another Act established a definitive oath of obedience to the King. He appointed Thomas Cranmer as Archbishop of Canterbury, and Cranmer declared the marriage invalid. What these acts essentially did was make permanent the divide between the Roman Catholic and Anglican, or English churches. This was a system whereby anyone who was in holy orders could claim to be immune from prosecution. Anyone who refused to take the oath when invited to do so was to be guilty of a praemunire, and therefore liable to imprisonment during the King's pleasure. And the first victims were chosen deliberately for their eminence and distinction: the monks of the Carthusian Order, Bishop Fisher of Rochester and Sir Thomas More himself.
Like the rest of Europe, however, England was restless with its church situation. Henry had no interest in sharing power and he saw the Crown as the only acceptable replacement for Papal power. But this is far from clear. Parliament can make law concerning anything. The stage was set for a break with Rome. In June, Fisher his sentence commuted to a mere beheading was executed on Tower Hill and More followed at the beginning of July. A valid Ac … t of Parliament cannot be questioned by the court.
He had also fallen in love with Anne Boleyn, who was young enough to bear children. Mary was only confined to her room and it was her servants who were sent to prison. The Act of Supremacy was a more political dispute than theological. Earnest leaders like John Colet of Oxford called for reform. On paper, the move to royal supremacy was a major moment in English history. Thomas More's head was boiled, as usual, to preserve it and to add terror to its appearance before exhibiting it. For the citizens of England, it was now an act of treason to show any support to the Papacy, which was punishable by removal of all property or in some cases, death.
A was also passed that made it an offence to attempt by any means, including writing and speaking, to accuse the King and his heirs of heresy or tyranny. But Henry was no Protestant. However, two weeks after the birth of the new born, Seymour died of child birth infection. Like the rest of Europe, however, England was restless with its church situation. Regardless of her child's sex, the queen's safe delivery could still be used to argue that God had blessed the marriage. Parliament is the supreme lawmaker. Albeit the king's Majesty justly and rightfully is and ought to be the supreme head of the Church of England, and so is recognized by the clergy of this realm in their convocations, yet nevertheless, for corroboration and confirmation thereof, and for increase of virtue in Christ's religion within this realm of England, and to repress and extirpate all errors, heresies, and other enormities and abuses heretofore used in the same, be it enacted, by authority of this present Parliament, that the king, our sovereign lord, his heirs and successors, kings of this realm, shall be taken, accepted, and reputed the only supreme head in earth of the Church of England, called Anglicana Ecclesia; and shall have and enjoy, annexed and united to the imperial crown of this realm, as well the title and style thereof, as all honors, dignities, preeminences, jurisdictions, privileges, authorities, immunities, profits, and commodities to the said dignity of the supreme head of the same Church belonging and appertaining; and that our said sovereign lord, his heirs and successors, kings of this realm, shall have full power and authority from time to time to visit, repress, redress, record, order, correct, restrain, and amend all such errors, heresies, abuses, offenses, contempts and enormities, whatsoever they be, which by any manner of spiritual authority or jurisdiction ought or may lawfully be reformed, repressed, ordered, redressed, corrected, restrained, or amended, most to the pleasure of Almighty God, the increase of virtue in Christ's religion, and for the conservation of the peace, unity, and tranquility of this realm; any usage, foreign land, foreign authority, prescription, or any other thing or things to the contrary hereof notwithstanding.
The 1559 Act of Supremacy declared Elizabeth the Supreme Governor of the Church of England. They were hanged, drawn and quartered at on 4th May. While the Pope did have the power to agree or disagree with senior Church appointments promoted by the monarch, it was near enough a tradition that he invariably agreed with an appointment. This was necessary for Elizabeth to fully establish her power, hold off threats of invasion from France and Spain, and to counter accusations of illegitimacy that plagued her early years. The Oath was later extended to include and people studying at : all but of the bishops lost their posts and a hundred fellows of Oxford colleges were deprived, as many dignitaries resigned rather than take the oath.
This paved the way for the Statute in Restraint of Appeals in early 1533, which removed the ability of the English to appeal to Rome on matters of matrimony, tithes and oblations. The only way the pope could have enforced his authority in England was at a spiritual level and by using the fear of excommunication. Sanctuaries were also done away with. It was very important to Henry that his wife should give birth to a male child. . The main reason he divorced his wives because of the failed attempts in receiving a boy. But none of this counted for anything against their support for Catherine and their disobedience to Henry.