Another crucial distinction among the various theories of literary interpretation is intentionality, the amount of weight given to the author's own opinions about and intentions for a work. That is when authors began to control their copyrights and get paid for sales. Why Literary Criticism Is Important Every one of us has taken at least one English class in our lives. Sensational Designs: the Cultural Work of American Fiction, 1790-1860. It's not just where would Keats have seen a Grecian urn in England, but from where he may have absorbed the definitions of art and beauty. The Forms of Autobiography: Episodes in a History of a Literary Genre. For example, how seriously would we take a book about the woes and poverty of Mexican immigrants if it had been written by Bill Gates Werth 3.
Corroboration is drawn from sociology and anthropology, and the study techniques categorize and evaluate the work in larger context rather than assessing its quality alone. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1990. By literary theory we refer not to the meaning of a work of literature but to the theories that reveal what literature can mean. Altered Egos: Authority in American Autobiography. Victorian biographical criticism was fairly idolatrous and tended to assume that authors were in charge since they held that authors were geniuses , but later biographical criticism has adopted psychoanalysis, Marxism, and all sorts of other tools. Thinking Fragments: Psychoanalysis, Feminism and Postmodernism in the Contemporary West, 1990. In The Implied Reader, Iser sees reading as a dialectical process between the reader and text.
Biographical criticism stands in ambiguous relationship to. Other things like books, mountains, courageous actions and railways are labeled as good instrumentally. Andrews Travel Theory Interest in travel and travel writing has emerged as the result of an intellectual climate that is interrogating imperialism, colonialism, postcolonialism, ethnography, diaspora, multiculturalism, nationalism, identity, visual culture, and map theory. The Country and the City. Until the mid-1970s, little work was done on theorizing women's autobiographies. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1999. The id houses the libido, the source of psychosexual energy.
One problem with this assumption is that it requires a crash course in matters falling outside the work itself. Encyclopedia of Life Writing: Autobiographical and Biographical forms. Please by the claims made and adding. The Wheel of Fire: Interpretations of Shakespearean Tragedy. An Introductory Guide to to Post-Structuralism and Postmodernism.
New York: Peter Lang, 2002. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980. . His approach held sway in English literature programs for several decades but lost favor during the ascendance of post-structuralism. An author's experiences, along with many other factors, help to shape his writing. Amherst: U of Massachusetts Press, 1994.
His work was soon noticed by American literary critics and theorists, and his ideas gained currency in the literary departments. After Bakhtin: Essays on Fiction and Criticism. Examples are ubiquitous and familiar: Samuel Clemens piloted a riverboat in the Antebellum Era, John Steinbeck researched migrant workers and families in California before publishing Grapes of Wrath, and Joseph Conrad captained a steamboat in the Congo. How do we approach literature? Edited, translated, and introduced by Michael Richardson. Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin, eds.
Sociological critics focus on how society and historical events shape a writer's work. American Writers and the Picturesque Tour. Hermeneutics Hermeneutics sees interpretation as a circular process whereby valid interpretation can be achieved by a sustained, mutually qualifying interplay between our progressive sense of the whole and our retrospective understanding of its component parts. How does it influence how a character behaves? Fictions in Autobiography: Studies in the Art of Self-Invention. This jostling from below served to keep society open, to liberate it from deadening. Mythemes - a term developed by Claude Lévi-Strauss--mythemes are the smallest component parts of a myth.
Towards a Poetics of Fiction: Essays from Novel: A Forum on Fiction. But critic Northrup Frye objects to this attitude: The absurd quantum formula of criticism, the assertion that the critic should confine himself to 'getting out' of a poem exactly what the poet may vaguely be assumed to have been aware of 'putting in', is one of the many slovenly illiteracies that the absence of systematic criticism has allowed to grow up. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1998. Resources for further study of Campbell's ideas: Northrop Frye: theorized that archtypes and mythology are literary creations, and that one must be familiar with these archetypes is necessary in order to be fully literate. Structuralism in Literature: An Introduction.
New York: Monthly Review P, 1971. Learning to Curse: Essays in Early Modern Culture. Navigate to one of the others using the links above. Imperial Leather: Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest. Emphasis will be on the questions concerning literature and literary studies. If you combine these historical facts with the critical direction and philosophical outlook of the age, you can very well predict what is going to happen to the central question of hermeneutics. The Authority of Interpretive Communities.