Beecher Through her writings and the schools she founded, Beecher advocated that women be taught history, Latin, rhetoric, algebra, logic, physical education, and natural philosophy—this at a time when women who received an education were most often taught etiquette, literature, and modern languages. Although she could be considered elderly in the 1860s and 1870s, Beecher returned briefly to teaching, probably seeking both income and an established position. All of these schools offered a strong background in the sciences that included courses in anatomy and physiology, with many of the early professors holding medical degrees. However, shifts in curricular emphasis were evident when wars occurred and when the results of national reports were published. Beecher was appalled that in states like Ohio, perhaps one third of children did not have access to schools. An Essay on the Education of Female Teachers, Written at the Request of the American Lyceum and Communicated at Their Annual Meeting, New York, May 8th, 1835. Treatise on Domestic Economy for the Use of Young Ladies at Home and at School, ch.
This position supported the thesis that physical education contributed to the physical well-being of children, as well as to their social, emotional, and intellectual development. Her parents had a strong influence on the values she held as an adult. She returned home to tend to the domestic duties of the household, including raising her younger brothers and sisters and doing the cooking and sewing for the family. The last was never published, although printed and used as a college textbook. The focus of these programs is on games, sports, dance, and fitness knowledge.
It was also during this time that several normal schools training schools for physical education teachers were established. Beecher's mother, also from a respected family, played a traditional role in the home and attempted to pass along her domestic skills to her children. Comprehending the deficiencies of existing textbooks, she prepared, primarily for use in her own school, some elementary books in arithmetic, a work on theology, and a third on mental and moral philosophy. Beecher held the view that the woman, as educator and spiritual guide for families, was the basis of a well-ordered and moral society. Beecher had girls in mind, especially. Almira Hart Lincoln Phelps 1793-1884 : The younger sister of Emma Hart Willard, Phelps was an innovative teacher and principal, as well as an accomplished writer.
Although she did not challenge the traditionally subordinate place of females, she did present a new vision of women as a strong and influential force that helped to determine the direction and conscience of the nation. Lyon and Grant both declined. This Act relates to all aspects of a child's educational success, including that of physical education. So, the contradictions there are that while she was on the one hand creating the philosophy that linked school with home and was very committed to helping women develop housewifery as a profession, she was living the life of a professional woman herself, doing none of the things, in the sense, she was arguing housewives ought to do. But even more important was the philosophy in which Beecher couched her advice.
Her writings promoted domestic science as a necessary part of the educational curriculum for women. Catharine wrote extensively on the subject of education for girls and women, stressing intellectual stimulation, moral education, and physical health. She believed that children lacked the experience needed to make important life decisions and that in order for them to become healthy self-sufficient adults, they needed to be allowed to express themselves freely in an environment suited to children. As a result of such concerns, there was some form of compulsory public school physical education in thirty-eight states by 1930. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education has provided guidelines in the form of grade-level benchmarks, as well as an operational definition of the physically educated person.
Catharine Beecher was a strong advocate of the inclusion of daily physical education and developed a program of calisthenics performed to music. Though there have been many other studies and methods over the course of the 20th century, it is thanks to the work of these late 19th century men and women that most children in U. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985. Individualization, nurturing personal meaning, and growth are hallmarks of this approach to teacher education. The Round Hill School, a private school established in 1823 in Northampton, Massachusetts, was the first to include physical education as an integral part of the curriculum. Proponents on both sides have valid points to make.
The organization was devoted to raising funds for the establishment of women's schools. Late Life In 1837, Beecher retired from administrative work. She accepted the invitation, and the excellent dinner changed her views. The younger children looked up to Catherine as the head of the household, and she remained exceptionally close to her father even after he married Harriet Porter the following year. The experience left her longing for additional opportunities for education. The academic orientation holds that the subject matter knowledge is central. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1990, 1-31.
Beecher was a strong advocate of the inclusion of physical education daily and developed a program of calisthenics that was performed to music. Beecher strongly supported allowing children to simply be children and not prematurely forcing adulthood onto them. The personal orientation is a more humanistic approach where the teacher and learner are considered as people first; teaching, learning, and content are secondary concerns. Frances Huehls Biographical Highlights Catharine Esther Beecher was a driving force in the development of teacher education and formal education for women in America. Catherine remained at home for another year before taking a teaching job in New London, Connecticut in 1818.
She also sought donations from friends and relatives for her education ventures. She died in Elmira, New York in 1878. This organization ultimately promoted teacher education and contributed to the establishment of education as a profession. Beecher, an important advocate of the systematization of housework and of education and economic independence for women, nonetheless was never captivated by the era's woman suffrage movement. Troy Female Seminary was the first school in America to teach girls math, science and social studies. Graduate programs for this approach must include a combination of content knowledge and professional education. Moving into the Future: National Standards for Physical Education.