Solon's Modest Social Reforms While enacted compromises and democratic reforms, he kept the social organization of Attica and the Athenians, the clans and tribes. Harmodius and his friend Aristogiton, the men who are renowned for freeing Athens of its tyrants, then assassinated Hipparchus. He therefore persuaded the people to change the basis of political organization from the family, clan, and phratry kinship group to the locality. After the end of the tyranny, two factions competed for power to reshape the government of. Pisistratus encouraged cultural and religious activities. Meanwhile Hipparchus made another attempt; he had no better success, and thereupon he determined, not indeed to take any violent step, but to insult Harmodius in some secret place, so that his motive could not be suspected.
On the economic side, Athens had grown to such a scale that it was barely able to feed itself. In this grouping system, steps were probably taken to diminish the local influence of some of the main priestly families. At the meetings, the ekklesia made decisions about war and foreign policy, wrote and revised laws and approved or condemned the conduct of public officials. Once a year, the Athenian people could exile a single citizen, be he too powerful, too dangerous or just too unpopular. That this new social order and political system took hold may have been largely due to what happened in the first decades of the 5th century.
© January 24, 2003, Christopher W. He changed the political structure of his city from something entirely based on clans to a system based on where people lived. The old nobility thought that Solon had gone too far and were anxious to reverse the trend; the common people thought that he had not gone far enough. Some relatives of survived, wealthy and still influential, in , and a new threat the Great King of was increasingly interested in bringing the Greek world into his empire. When the tyrant of Sicyon was looking for a husband for his daughter , he pursued Megacles, the son of Alcmaeon.
It dealt with ambassadors and representatives from other city-states. For the full story, which contains even more ironies that I have given here, see ;. Facts about Cleisthenes 1: The Athenian Democracy Founder Cleisthenes was well-known as the founder of democracy in Athens. The Spartans were blocked by the courageous resistance of the Athenians, and Isagoras with his allies withdrew. His most important innovation was the basing of individual political responsibility on citizenship of a city ratherthan on membership of a clan. Each trittys would have been named after the dominant deme. He was not only a just ruler, but he also made it impossible for anyone to ever be a tyrant in Athens again.
The other side, the men of the Plain consisting mainly of Eupatrids 'nobles' , favored restoration of an aristocratic government. Isagoras Back in Athens, the Eupatrid Alcmaeonids, led by Cleisthenes c. Cleisthenes' reforms were instrumental in converting earlier democratic tendencies into a governmental. Jurors were paid a wage for their work, so that the job could be accessible to everyone and not just the wealthy but, since the wage was less than what the average worker earned in a day, the typical juror was an elderly retiree. Ten new local tribes were formed to take the place of the four Ionic blood tribes, and, to make faction building more difficult, Attica was divided into three areas—the city itself and its suburbs, the coastal area, and the inland area; and townships from each of the three areas were included in each tribe, 10 counties, trittyes, being formed in each area for this purpose.
Next, Cleisthenes established sortition, which meant that people were randomly selected for government positions. His reforms targeted at breaking the power of the aristocratic families, replacing regional loyalties with pan-Athenian solidarity, and preventing the rise of another tyrant. The territorial demes became the administrative, economic, cultural, and political units. Isagoras initially won a minor victory by getting himself chosen as Archon in 508. Facts about Cleisthenes 8: The Law Courts Cleisthenes reorganized the law court system. Declaring war and vetoing recommendations of the Council were responsibilities of the Assembly of all citizens.
Over time, each member came to be chosen by lot from those citizens who were at least 30-years old and approved by the outgoing council. Cleisthenes Athenian lawmaker of the sixth century B. To ensure that the poor had a voice in politics as well, Solon expanded membership to the Athenian general assembly. Cleisthenes was around 25 years old at this time, and for nearly 20 years he could not return. Evidence from the 5th and 4th centuries show many people living in the city of Athens, but identifying themselves with rural demes. When he became the chief magistrate, he had to face the problems Solon had created 50 years earlier through his compromising democratic reforms—foremost among which was the allegiance of citizens to their clans.
Many people recognized him due to his involvement in ancient constitution reformation. This system was useful to eradicate a threat from a tyrant. Whilst in exile, Cleisthenes claimed support from the sacred oracle at Delphi in order to convince the Spartans to help him remove Hippias from power, as it happened. Certainly other city-states had incorporated some democratic elements, but these held little political power, acting as councils which the leaders could easily ignore. Old associations, by region or according to families, were broken. These Thirds were then assigned to ten Tribes phylai, , in such a way that each Tribe contained three Thirds, one from the coast, one from the inland, and one from the city. In order to break such loyalties, Cleisthenes divided the 140-200 demes natural divisions of Attica into 3 regions: city, coast, and inland.