Viceroy Linlithgow proposed in August 1940 that India be granted a Dominion status at the conclusion of the war. A Pakistani drama , based on the novel Bano, highlights the plight of Muslim girls who were abducted and raped during partition. The interdependent relationship between India and Pakistan was largely that of the former as the industrial manufacturer and the latter as the supplier of raw-materials. It necessitated the immediate construction of a new rail-link with Assam. He helped move many people away from traditional practices such as caste separation and arranged child marriages. During the cold war, the two countries were members of the opposing poles and three full-fledged wars within three decades of independence did a lot to develop mutual suspicion and hatred.
Hindus and Muslims are one nation and not two. Butler, 2002, Britain and Empire: Adjusting to a Post-Imperial World, p. The proposal was however rejected by both the Congress and the Muslim League in September that year. According to Ian Morrison of the Times of London, the movement was:. The ideological differences between the Hindu and Muslim populations in colonial India led the British to believe that the two new countries should be divided along religious lines rather than regional ones.
Undivided India, their magnificent imperial trophy, was besmirched by the creation of Pakistan, and the division of India was never emotionally accepted by many British leaders, Mountbatten among them. Activities of the Muslim League: The English Govt played a significant role in the formation of Muslim League. Both sides blamed the other and took their frustration out onthe other religion for the hardships they had to put up with. Tinnah delivered fiery speeches and playing with the feelings of pathans. Trading posts are set up in Bombay 1638 , Madras 1639 , and Calcutta 1690 by the company. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East.
Provisions of the Indian Independence Act: The following were the main provision of Indian Independence Act of 1947 A. The independent federal dominion of Pakistan that included two enclaves, East Pakistan presently Bangladesh and West Pakistan modern-day Pakistan , geographically separated by India came into existence on August 14, 1947 with Muhammad Ali Jinnah as its first Governor General. Even after almost six decades after the partition, India and Pakistan have still not healed from the wounds left by the partition. The Muslim League conducted its own investigation into the conditions of Muslims under Congress-governed provinces. Delhi received the largest number of refugees for a single city — the population of Delhi grew rapidly in 1947 from under 1 million 917,939 to a little less than 2 million 1,744,072 during the period 1941—1951.
He regularly writes for his blog 'South Asia and Beyond', both in English and Nepali and can be followed in twitter jkshetry. Most live in menial conditions and occupy the lower strata of Indian society. They, however, fail to deliver her to the father for many days and keep the bereaved father waiting. Labour Prime Minister had been deeply interested in Indian independence since the 1920s, and for years had supported independence. Many villagers lost self-suffiency due to the British enforcing cash crops. The partition also led to a sizeable decline in the demand for Indian manufactured articles as Pakistan drifted to other sources of supply.
The Indian Army was bisected and the bureaucracy as well. The Punjab Bloodied, Partitioned and Cleansed: Unravelling the 1947 Tragedy through Secret British Reports and First Person Account. It took over a year for them to regain power and control. Accordingly the Bengal Presidency, the largest administrative subdivision of British India, was divided on October 16, that year into largely Hindu western areas of Bengal that presently form the Indian states of West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar and Jharkhand; and the largely Muslim eastern areas of East Bengal and Assam. In these medieval port towns, combat experience led to less cleansing of ethnic minorities Jha and Wilkinson 2012. Observers state that Hari Singh's aim was to alter the demographics of the region by eliminating the Muslim population, in order to ensure a Hindu majority in the region. By this scheme, the British hoped they could at once preserve the united India desired by the Congress, and by themselves, and at the same time, through the groups, secure the essence of Jinnah's demand for a 'Pakistan'.
Mountbatten and the partition of India. East Bengal was renamed East Pakistan in 1955, and later became the independent nation of after the of 1971. Literature describing the human cost of independence and partition comprises Bal K. Back in India several mutinies broke since January 1946 that only led the Attlee government to expedite on the independence issue. Economic problems began arising for the Indians due to British restrictions. Lastly, the Muslim elite, and among it , , who hosted the League's first meeting in his mansion in , was aware that a new province with a Muslim majority would directly benefit Muslims aspiring to political power. Some areas in Pakistan saw a sharp increase in literacy, mainly driven by the presence of Muslim refugees.
But the choice is between one division and many divisions. Akash Kapur is a contributing editor at Transition magazine. Today my five brothers and only one sister are having a better life in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia. This book helped me answer the question of economy more detailed. Provincial option, he argued, was clearly an insufficient security.
India's Partition: The Story of Imperialism in Retreat London: Routledge. Many of the people concerned were very deeply attached not just to religious identity, but to territory, and Britain was reluctant to use its troops to maintain law and order. However, the partition affected industries in many other ways. The Muslims gradually became concerned that in future they will be dominated and treated unjustly by the Hindus under the Congress government in independent India. After much contemplation Gandhi decided that they will divide India so that Jinnah could control the Pakistani Congress and Nehru the Hindustani Congress. They are asked to leave a … ll that they possess,whichthey cannot carry with them to new country like ancestral housesand other possessions. It is an unforgettable sight to see one of these columns on the move.