Encyclopedia of the American Constitution. Unto A Good Land: A History Of The American People, Volume 1, p. In the year of its ratification, only eight Northern states allowed Blacks to vote. Thus the Democratic party North and South is joining hands to disfranchise the negro. Section 2 was condemned by , such as and , who had long seen their cause as linked to that of black rights. White Primary System - Another way to keep black people from voting was called the white primary system. The were satisfied that they had secured civil rights for blacks, but were disappointed that the amendment would not also secure political rights for blacks; in particular, the right to vote.
Adoption The Congress proposed the Fifteenth Amendment on February 26, 1869. Participants in rebellion Section 3 prohibits the election or appointment to any federal or state office of any person who had held any of certain offices and then engaged in insurrection, rebellion, or. The amendment's first section includes several clauses: the , , , and. In the 1960s, the United States Supreme Court adopted an expansive view of state action opening the door to wide-ranging civil-rights litigation against private actors when they act as i. Literacy Tests - Literacy tests were tests that people had to pass to be eligible to vote. Like the octave, in the Western system of music notation notes a fifteenth apart are given the same name—the name of a note an octave above A is also A.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Virginia, Mississippi, Texas and Georgia, were required to ratify the amendment as a precondition for having congressional representation. Though many of the original proposals for the amendment had been moderated by negotiations in committee, the final draft nonetheless faced significant hurdles in being ratified by three-fourths of the states. By late 1870, all the former Confederate states had been readmitted to the Union, and most were controlled by the Republican Party, thanks to the support of black voters. Still, others say the President may do what he wants in an emergency, with or without the authority of the 14th Amendment. The purpose of the 15th Amendment was to ensure that states or communities were not denying men the right to vote simply based on their race, such as black codes that limited African American social and working rights.
Constitution after the Civil War. Some Democrats even advocated a repeal of the amendment, such as of. Encyclopedia of the American Constitution. Some members of Congress voted for the Fourteenth Amendment in order to eliminate doubts about the constitutionality of the , or to ensure that no subsequent Congress could later repeal or alter the main provisions of that Act. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The first African American man to vote in the United States was Thomas Peterson.
Still, activists persisted at the national level, petitioning and lobbying for the cause. Section One stated that ''The right of citizens. Procedural due process is the guarantee of a fair legal process when the government tries to interfere with a person's protected interests in life, liberty, or property, and substantive due process is the guarantee that the fundamental rights of citizens will not be encroached on by government. The purpose of the movement was for women to fight for their right to vote. Before I put this amendment to the Board, I have one more word to say. His reasoning was that it was his belief that the state of Maryland limited its suffrage to men, and that the Maryland legislature had refused to vote on the ratification of the 19th Amendment. A concurrent resolution requesting the President to transmit the proposal to the executives of the several states was passed by both houses of Congress on June 18.
In 1865, Congress passed what would become the , guaranteeing citizenship without regard to race, color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude. In other contexts, the term two octaves is likely to be used. Constitution was one of three changes made to the U. The Court wrote: The Fifteenth Amendment does not confer the right of suffrage upon any one. On February 26, 1869, after rejecting more sweeping versions of a suffrage amendment, Congress proposed a compromise amendment banning franchise restrictions on the basis of race, color, or previous servitude. Encyclopedia of the American Constitution.
For example, Southern states used black codes, which were laws to limit the labor and social rights of former slaves. The Black Codes attempted to return ex-slaves to something like their former condition by, among other things, restricting their movement, forcing them to enter into year-long labor contracts, prohibiting them from owning firearms, and by preventing them from suing or testifying in court. Senate and House votes on the Fourteenth Amendment Over 70 proposals for an amendment were drafted. The Joint Committee on Reconstruction found that only a Constitutional amendment could protect black people's rights and welfare within those states. Mine was a sort of an amendment, and so might be put before the original motion.
Nevada was the first state to ratify the amendment, on March 1, 1869. For instance, only 36 percent of eligible women voters turned out for the vote in 1920, compared to 68 percent of eligible male voters. The New England states and most Midwest states also ratified the amendment soon after its proposal. This is because at that time, the issue of women voting was not an issue at all. However, the states still ran the voting in elections. Many white people didn't have to take the test because of the grandfather clause.