The inter-ethnic relations between the Raramuri and mestizos have been damaged as a result of this project and Arareco is therefore suffering from this lack of cooperation. Also, ethno-tourism means that the subject is no more nature or culture, but people themselves as a tourism object! As tourists become increasingly concerned with travel responsibly, they will expect travel companies not only to offer environmentally sustainable products, but also travel products that have a positive impact on the local community. Because the mestizos in Creel have influence in directing tourists to certain areas, it is to the advantage of Raramuri individuals and communities to enter into cooperative relationships with these neighbors. Even before any physical evidence of change, tourists were complaining about the project idea. The lack of outside funds and ideas perhaps keeps Cusarare's ambitions much lower than those of Arareco. Therefore, profits disproportionately have benefited lake residents over others. In fact, many of the interviewed Raramuri say that since the fee was imposed, tourists have been treating the trail and the Raramuri with more respect.
After processing my relationship to and investment in specific pretour narratives, I started to wonder whether tourism is inherently violent and what subverting and resisting commonsense representations look like. Otherwise, no one can acquire any advantage from ethno tourism because the destroying ethnic environment is unable to attract tourist and no more bring any profits then. At the hot springs, Raramuri boys and men waited for tour groups at the edge of the canyon where they were then paid by the mestizo drivers to lead the tourists down to the hot springs. It can also be like a place like Mumbai or Goa. It does have objectives and goals that pertain to improving the life of ejido residents while maintaining the ejido's cultural and environmental integrity but it does not fit in a structured project format to allow it to be recognized as such. Guidebooks and brochures often describe the ethnic tourist attraction as traditional, quaint, exotic, and primitive. In any case, indigenous people who are subject to ethnic tourism are in a dilemma.
Hence, the profits made from ethno tourism, needless to say, are played a major role in the local healthy industry. Cusarare, with local ideas and little money, has invested in maintaining the cultural and ecological elements of the ejido by putting energy in craft development and maintaining and promoting nature trails. The income from crafts has a more significant economic effect than the entry fee money because profits are concentrated in separate family units of the craft maker rather than spread throughout the community. These jobs included fee-collection, construction, and running the rental services. Handicraft sales provide other money-making opportunitys associated with tourism in Cusarare. Many of the women said that the high entrance fee keeps the tourists from spending so freely within the ejido.
Handicraft sales produce additional income which can be used to buy food if crops fail or to buy cloth and other necessities. Tourism is essentially the only industry in The Bahamas, and single-sector economies are high-risk economies. Tensions are identified that are endemic to ethnic tourism and cannot be eliminated but they can be understood, planned for, and managed. Much of the change is slow, but not all ejido residents are capable or willing to adjust. While it is naive to expect traditional indigenous peoples to remain static while their visitors' lives are always changing, often the native's livelihood depends on this stasis. Generally considered to fall under the category of soft adventure tourism, ecotourism is a form of travel whereby the adventurer explores undeveloped, natural and culturally sensitive areas with a desire to experience it while leaving it intact and unchanged.
To compare these two approaches, four main issues drawn from ethnic tourism literature are analyzed for each ejido. It is very difficult for outside help to consider all the underlying and peripheral issues that are relevant to the tourism situation. If a --successful local community project can not be replicated for other local communities, its obvious that would not be considered sustainable. Visitors enjoy both the natural environment and the singular ethnic experience. Unlike Arareco, Cusarare has no tourist project but does have a different approach to tourism.
Indeed, for tourists in search of the authentic other, the tour is never over so long as they continue to engage in narratives of their temporary travels and discussions of exotic others. Photography and narrative mastery are two of the mechanisms through which the tourist gaze can fix differences between the tourists and the spectacle of the other as well as reinforce violent stereotypes regarding race and poverty in less developed countries. This paper addresses this gap by examining the socio-cultural issues associated with ethnic tourism and exploring planning strategies for its development based upon empirical research in a well-known tourist destination in China — Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province. One is an indigenously derived strategy, the other involves external influence. Issue I: Economic Development Tourism is both a strategy and a cause for development, which itself has a multitude of definitions ranging from the provision and enhancement of tourist facilities and services to increased employment and a heightened standard of living for the indigenous recipients of tourism. Being a single-sector economy also leaves The Bahamas more vulnerable to global economic declines.
Cusarare is also acknowledged for producing crafts that are not found in other communities. Consequently, the valuable indigenous culture may be extinct. In contrast, Cusarare's economic development is slower and better distributed, tourist attractiveness is maintained because of the retention of traditional lifestyle, and inter-ethnic relations are cooperative and mutually beneficial as both the mestizos and the Raramuri profit from tourism. The majority of Arareco's residents live well within ejido borders and away from the highway. Arareco's divisions stem from outside assistance while Cusarare's is more related to general problems with tourism.
Part of the Raramuri's attractiveness is the history of their resistance to modernity and their retention of traditional ways. Dear Ariane, Eco without Ethno I can not imagine this. Other rising forms of adventure travel include and. As time going on, the local people gradually begin to benefit from the ethno tourism industry. ~ The Joseanos constructed the lodges in their traditional building style using eco-friendly materials from their natural surroundings.
It is not really accepted by everybody. The cultural uniqueness which attracted the tourist in the first place slowly disappears. Arareco's tourist project benefits 30 families directly and 370 indirectly. These pretour narratives can only exist due to the ways in which the West has been able to produce and maintain hegemonic knowledge on the rest of the world. Tourist expectations may change with time, however, as Arareco becomes viewed as a resort rather than a stronghold of ancient tradition. Most tourist development is planned for the lake area while the rest of the ejido will remain relatively untouched. The establishment of high levels of disposable income, especially made possible in the post-Fordism or flexible production era, has enabled mass tourism of bodies from the Global North to places in the Global South, which have ironically actually produced much of the surpluses that established Western affluence.
Field research was done in Arareco and Cusarare over a three year period both formally and informally with over six total months of residence in Creel during October 1991, February-April 1992, January, March, May-June, November 1993, and January 1994. However, for the purposes of ethnic tourism, these contrived expressions of culture have only increased the attractiveness of Cusarare. I conclude by exploring the implications and suggesting possibilities for subverting the tourist gaze. Another economic issue is the type of jobs created by the industry. A rift developed between the genders when the men's new income opportunities associated with the project began to interfere with the women's already established craft trade. Even with the capitalistic and entrepreneurial craft industry, interviewed tourists said that they felt they were supporting a traditional culture by buying crafts. The tourists who do enter the ejido do not buy as many crafts as they did before.