Where can I get Nature Of The Federal System Questions and Answers pdf free download questions and answers with explanations? However, in the case of conflict over the legislation on any of the subjects mentioned in the Concurrent List, the Centre supersedes the States. Parliament should always be functional. Veto Over State Bills:- The governor is empowered to reserve certain types of bills passed by the state legislature for the consideration of the President. There is, however, single citizenship in India, with no division of public services or of the judiciary. In India, as the States were not previously sovereign entities, the rights were exercised mainly by Union, e. Neither the Constitution-makers nor nation-builders intended such an outcome. Though, the Government of India Act,.
However, many provisions in the constitution outside these lists permit or to legislate. The State List, which contains 66 subjects of local importance and the State Legislatures have the power to enact laws with respect to these subjects; 3. Further, the power to initiate an amendment to the Constitution lies only with the Centre. Centralized Amendment Power In a typical federation, the power of amendment to the Federal Constitution lies on a shared basis between the federation and its units. In the United States, federalism is the system of government in which power is divided between a central government and the government of each state. Matters like supervision of local government, education, jails, police, co-operation, agriculture, health and sanitation, medical, etc. Federal systems or systems strongly influenced by federal principles have been among the most stable and long-lasting of polities.
Even though regionalism is attributive of uneven economic development and underrepresentation of some regions in the governance of the country, it is flamed by narrow-minded and anti-national forces to gain their nefarious goals. Paramilitary forces are controlled by Union government only. The Union List consisted of 97 subjects, the more important of which are defence, foreign affairs, railways, posts and telegraphs, currency, etc. The federal government is powerful over the matter of national or general importance. Provincial governors are appointed by the Governor-General and apolitical Governors are appointed by President on the advice of the Union government. Several devices found in federal systems serve to maintain the federal principle itself. But, in India, the states do not have equal representation in the Council of States.
In Canada, the ethnic differences between the two largest and richest provinces have prevented them from combining against the others. There is no concept of central or Union emergency. The position of the Federal Tribunal of Switzerland is quite different. Control of industries, which was a subject in the concurrent list in the 1935 act, was transferred to the Union List. Single Citizenship:- In spite of a dual polity, the Constitution of India, like that of Canada, adopted the system of single citizenship. Integrated Audit Machinery:- The Comptroller and Auditor-General of India audit the accounts of not only the Central government but also those of the states. This division of powers based on the federal alliance becomes a part of the Constitution or the fundamental law of land.
In the past demand for Pakistan-backed Khalistan and clamour for Dravida Nadu created instability in the proposed regions and posed a threat to the unity of the country. References to Territories of India, are applicable to the whole country including union territories. Certain characteristics and principles, however, are common to all truly federal systems. But the dilemma in a federation emerges that if the principle of equalization is adhered to, the national income and the total income growth will suffer. The State List, which contains 66 subjects of local importance and the State Legislatures have the power to enact laws with respect to these subjects; 3.
Parliament shall legislate on residuary subjects following the Article 368 procedure as constitutional amendments. Even where there is no formal arrangement, the spirit of federalism tends to infuse a sense of contractual obligation. Hence, this office restricts the financial autonomy of the states. But, in India, the states do not have equal representation in the Council of States. The Union government also took in a very easy approach some of the recommendations made by this commission. Predominantly, people speak one language and follow one religion under a secular constitution Multilingual people with predominantly following one religion under secular constitutions Multilingual people following multiple religions under a secular constitution.
Parliaments authority over state list Parliament empowered to legislate any subject of state list if Rajya Sabha passes a resolution. Rigid Constitution: The Indian Constitution is largely a rigid Constitution. The States cannot propose amendments to, the Constitution. This right is exercised by the Presidium of that country which is a permanent committee of the Supreme Soviet Parliament and in its absence performs many of its functions. No substitute to such constitutional arrangement is in sight in the context of the country.
Flexibility Of Constitution Process of Constitutional Amendmend is less rigid. In the event of such disputes both the central and the state governments will interpret the constitution in their own way. Secondly, for administrative efficiency, the central government grants autonomy to provincial governments. Heads of constituent units are directly or indirectly elected Head of the States are appointed by the President with the advice of Union government whereas Heads of the are usually leaders of the party with majority or largest party in the who are not by the people throughout the state and can be either directly elected by the citizens from a particular Vidhan Sabha constituency or can be indirectly elected as the member of. As the practice of federalism became prevalent in many parts of the world, its theoretical aspects were elaborated by scholars.
Such a diverse and vast country cannot be administered and ruled from a single centre. It was a result of the prevailing situation that time in the United States of America. The concept of union territory was established by the. However, when one becomes aware of the allocations of the Central plan fund released by the Planning Commission on an annual basis, it appears that there is no such obtrusive discrimination. Independent Judiciary: In India, the Constitution has provided for a Supreme Court and every effort has been made to see that the judiciary in India is independent and supreme. The state of was accorded a than other States under. Highly efficient executive and dedicated lawmakers.