Legal-Constitutional Provisions since Independence Along with abolishing the untouchable system and reserving government jobs for Dalits, the new Indian Constitution contained articles that provide for defending the dignity of Dalits. Origin and History of Caste System in India There are many theories relating to the origin of caste system in the country. Krishna and two other as members and Ambedkar as its chairman. Many Sudras and untouchables were attracted to the ideas of because Muslims rejected the caste system. Unlike class system, cast system does not allow any person to move from one caste to another. The caste system divides Hindus into four main categories - Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and the Shudras.
Independent India's constitution banned discrimination on the basis of caste, and, in an attempt to correct historical injustices and provide a level playing field to the traditionally disadvantaged, the authorities announced quotas in government jobs and educational institutions for scheduled castes and tribes, the lowest in the caste hierarchy, in 1950. Rohit Vemula and four of his Dalit friends were reportedly days earlier, being told that they could attend classes but were not allowed to enter the hostel or common areas. Article 243D of the Indian Constitution reserves seats for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in every rural body of government, or Panchayat, of which not less than one-third of the total number of reserved seats are for women. What is Caste System Caste or Varna System is a purely Indian phenomenon and especially it is practiced among Hindus, though with time, as far as India is considered, other religions such as Islam, Sikhism, Christianity etc. These two groups constantly struggled for political leadership among the Aryans.
The Caste System of Northern India, republished 1964, S. The member of different castes sits and eats together. They were not allowed in hindu Temples, or even to draw water from the village well. Among Muslims, those who are referred to as Ashrafs are presumed to have a superior status derived from their foreign Arab ancestry, while the Ajlafs are assumed to be converts from Hinduism, and have a lower status. With the spread of urbanization and rowing secular education, influence of caste has decreased. When India gained independence from Britain in 1947, Ambedkar was appointed the Law Minister and as such he was one of the authors of the Constitution of Independent India.
Apart from these four Varnas, another section was there which was considered lowest of them all. . Hindu religion cannot become a missionary religion because it cannot integrate the other social groups into its fold on the basis of equal footing. The dominance of Brahmins drove Sudras to take up Christianity, Islam and other religions as they were allured by the philosophy and ideology of these communities. Constitutional Provisions First of all the Preamble to the Constitution envisions India as a nation where socio-economic and political justice is there; where there will be equality of status and opportunity and where dignity of the individual is secured. Article 46 enables the State to promote the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and, in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and enjoins it to protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. He has even the freedom not to follow any particular religion.
The idea is to deal with the problem of social discrimination and its resultant impacts. The Brahmins are at the top of the caste hierarchy and comprise of scholars and priests. Castes are an aspect of Hindu religion. India was composed of as many as 90,000 localized sub-groups. He asserts that the caste system is far from a rigid system in which the position of each component caste is fixed for all time. Genome Research 13 10 : 2277—2290.
The lower caste people are given equal rights and opportunities in social, economic and political spheres almost like higher castes people. Available online at cited January 2, 2002. For instance, a young official may address a senior person, not necessarily his superior, as chachaji, a respectful term for a paternal uncle. The reservation policy provides for the employment of a proportionate representation of Dalits in all the public jobs in the government, public sector, autonomous bodies, and institutions receiving grant-in-aid from the government. More or less, the situation is still the same.
India cannot become a truly modern country in the 21st century, if it fails to abolish this discriminatory practice based on caste. Gandhi's contribution toward the emancipation of the untouchables is still debated, especially in the commentary of his contemporary Dr. Thus, when India broke the shackles of slavery and the Constitution was framed, the founding fathers of the constitution added provisions in order to reduce the ill-effects of prevailing caste system in the country. Usually, the Kshatriyas collaborated with the Brahmins as they governed over their empire. Historical examples of mobility in the Indian Caste System among Hindus have been researched. Over three Dalit women are raped and six are disabled each day. An earlier 1995 study by Joanna L.
Also, the Indian constitution prohibits discrimination on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. How it works Castes still rarely intermarry and are definitely not changeable. The roots of the Hindu caste system were already in place between 1000 and 1500 B. Every person in India has been granted the right to religious freedom. It was in school, however, that he began to feel the sting of discrimination against untouchables. With a view to make them active, full and equal partners in the Indian socioeconomic politico-cultural system, special safeguards and privileges have been granted to persons belonging to weaker sections of society the system of protective discrimination has been adopted for securing social equality.
What else should I know about the Indian caste system? Higher casted lived up the river, so the lower castes would get the trash, and wasted from the people living in higher castes. The association of individual castes with specific occupations has to a great extent broken down. The inclusion of so-called untouchables into the mainstream was argued for by many social reformers see , below. The 's report commissioned by the government of India and released in 2006, documents the continued stratification in Muslim society. His teachers would not touch his books or papers, and he was forced to sit on the floor in one corner of the classroom.
They occasionally had leadership positions in local villages. The participants of the Conference Against Racism in , in March 2001, condemned discrimination due to the caste system, and tried to pass a resolution declaring that caste as a basis for the and of peoples in terms of their descent and occupation is a form of. For centuries, inter-caste marriage was forbidden, and in villages, castes mostly lived separately and did not share amenities such as wells. The Vaishyas were skilled farmers and merchants. In India's educational institutions, the reservation system and financial assistance in the form of scholarships are granted to Dalits.