Science and Civilisation in China. These are folded down, so that the paper lies on the surface of the inked type. The printing press was associated with higher levels of city growth. One of those metalsmiths was Johannes Gutenberg, a goldsmith and businessman from the mining town of Mainz in southern Germany. In 1504, he was mentioned as the inventor of in a book by Professor Ivo Wittig. Specific topics include invention of the printing, press.
Indeed, the German goldsmith's 15th-century contribution to the technology was revolutionary — enabling the mass production of books and the rapid dissemination of knowledge throughout Europe. Reportedly, Gutenberg became blind in the last months of his life, living partly in Mainz and partly in the neighboring village of Eltville. In the 14th century, Wang Chen, a Chinese government official of the Yuan Dynasty, independently created his own set of movable characters out of wood. It was located around 160 miles northwest of Strasbourg. Europeans, however, took to movable type quickly. The printing press which led to a considerable acceleration of the method so far used of taking an impression by rubbing, was a screw press with The basic idea of Gutenberg's invention was the splitting up of the text into individual components such as lower and upper case letters, punctuation marks, ligatures and abbreviations, based upon the tradition of medieval scribes. After around 1800, iron presses were developed, some of which could be operated by steam power.
Fust's demand 1455 for repayment of sums advanced resulted in a settlement in which Gutenberg abandoned his claims to his invention and surrendered his stock, including type and the incomplete work on the 42-line Bible, to Fust, who continued the business and completed printing the Bible with the help of Peter Schöffer, who later became his son-in-law. Bust of Johannes Gutenberg, in Tours, France In Europe, the arrival of mechanical movable type printing introduced the era of mass communication which permanently altered the structure of society. As a result registration problems occurred. The Gutenberg Bibles, which dates from the 1450s, are considered to be the first books printed in the Western world and, although they don't bear the printer's name anywhere in the volumes, are attributed to Gutenberg's first printing efforts. The invention of the printing press, in turn, set off a social revolution that is still in progress. This may perhaps be explained by the prior eminence of Italy in the paper and printing trade. Johannes Gutenberg: the Man and His Invention.
The Day the Universe Changed. Although some identical types are clearly used on other pages, other variations, subjected to detailed image analysis, suggested that they could not have been produced from the same matrix. Memorial plaque for Johannes Gutenberg Zammelsberg In 1504, he was mentioned as the inventor of in a book by Professor Ivo Wittig. Practical printing experiments Gutenberg was unaware of the Chinese and Korean printing methods. A ready supply of suitable material that could be printed on was required.
It played a key role in the development of the , , the , and the and laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses. It was not until 1565 that the German court rewarded Gutenberg with an annual salary for his achievement. Movable type also first surfaced in the Far East. Man, Gutenberg: How One Man Remade the World 2002. But since his printed books never carry his name or a date, it is difficult to be certain, and there is consequently a considerable scholarly debate on this subject. Gutenberg grew up knowing the trade of.
When Johannes Gutenberg began building his press in 1436, he was unlikely to have realised that he was giving birth to an art form which would take center stage in the social and industrial revolutions which followed. Aventur und Kunst: Vom Geheimunternehmen zur ersten Medienrevolution, Mainz: Stadt Mainz, pp. Whether Gutenberg used this sophisticated technique or a somewhat primitive version has been the subject of considerable debate. The success of printing meant that books soon became cheaper, and ever wider parts of the population could afford them. As a result there was widespread interest in finding an alternative means of producing books.
The printing press was an important step towards the. But these wooden blocks wore out quickly, and a new block had to be carved for each character, word, or image that was used. In China, there were no texts similar to the Bible which could guarantee a printer return on the high capital investment of a printing press, and so the primary form of printing was wood block printing which was more suited for short runs of texts for which the return was uncertain It is not clear whether Gutenberg knew of these existing techniques or invented them independently, though the former is considered unlikely because of the substantial differences in technique. This remains possible, albeit entirely unproven. The invention of mechanical movable type printing led to a huge increase of printing activities across Europe within only a few decades.
This was much to the chagrin of a growing, literate middle class, who had limited access to the written word. Another factor conducive to printing arose from the book existing in the format of the , which had originated in the. He was already familiar with the techniques of xylography, the process used to make books and other printed matter in Europe since the 14th century, and in the Far East much earlier. Most of this type fell into the possession of Albrecht Pfister in Bamberg. The judgement led to Gutenberg becoming nearly a bankrupt while Fust and Schoffer used his invention to print the Mainz Psalter, a religious book commissioned by the Mainz archbishop in 1457. By 1500, there were 1,700 printing presses in Europe.