Did the Phaeacians exist beyond Greece and further west closer to the Italian mainland? This brother, although he is given a name, has no more substance than the nameless brothers in the Iliad's group of twelve sons. Poseidon rescued the twins from Nestor's path on that day Iliad 11. When in s … ight of their homeland of Ithaca, the other crew members opened the bag in curiosity and greed. Remember, ten years was taken from Odysseus for the Trojan War while the remaining ten were for his voyage back from the war. The second major assumption is that Scheria was on , a harbour city in Spain. Recall Penelope's strategy of weaving a death shroud for Laertes, only to unmake it each night in order to forestall her marriage to one of the suitors. When Demodocus, the blind bard, sings of the exploits of those at Troy, Odysseus weeps, causing King Alcinous to suspect that a hero of the Trojan War is among them.
The great Ithacan promptly hurls a discus farther than any of the younger men could manage. The king is a second Nestor, king of Pylos, and Arete is a substitute for Athena Polias, the city goddess of Athens. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1987. Aside from the seafaring prowess, the palace walls that shone like the Sun are read to be covered not by bronze but. He pleads with Arete to grant him safe passage to his homeland, and wishes the gods to endow the Phaeacians with good fortune throughout their lives. The first is that Poseidon can always change his mind.
They are Odysseus's audience when he tells the story of his wanderings, which is the very heart of the Homeric epic. Athena is a master of disguise, appropriately appearing in whatever form best suits her purpose. Nausicaa, the daughter of the Phaeacian King Alcinous and Queen Arete, finds him there. A disguised Athena encounters Odysseus on his way to the Phaeacian palace and tells him in advance about the king and queen. The Vedic counterparts to the Greek Dioscuri reveal that Nestor's combination of epithet and name had an Indo-European origin, and they show what the significance of this combination was. Corfu is one island close to Ithaca and it matches the description of Scheria in the Odyssey. In the wider context, which includes the entire Phaeacian episode starting with Nausicaa's dream, a rhyme, so to speak, is created by the second of Athena's two departures, and this rhyme, in and of itself, draws attention to its own significance.
If we think of the Homeric poems as arising in the proposed Panionic context, there are formal characteristics of the poems that make sense on such a supposition. The Ambracian Gulf was situated along the Ionian Sea. Pausanias and Strabo see n. The winds escaped and sent them far away out to sea, far away from Ithaca. In The Odyssey Homer also shows examples of good hosts as well. This is a delicate question, but one that can perhaps be posed in broader terms than I have attempted here. Alcinous also takes the place of Rhexenor, but not as warrior, for the Phaeacians have no need of warriors.
In contrast to the disguised twin myth in the case of Nestor himself, the Phaeacian genealogy makes Nestor's myth explicit in the case of his Phaeacian counterpart Alcinous. At Ithaca Odysseus practices the same caution, but under a disguise and pseudonym. As the introduction to Fagles and Knox puts it p. He meets his loyal swineherd, Eumaeus, and is pleased with the man's hospitality as well as his devotion to his master, whom he does not recognize. Then they bathed in the river and anointed themselves with oil. Before Odysseus meets Arete she is twice described as spinning wool by the light of the fire, and that is how Odysseus finds her. Then Athena appears in the guise of a young shepherd, and tells Odysseus that he is in Ithaca, after all.
On his first day there Nausicca, the princess, finds him, and Athena guides him to meet the king and queen. The myth that came to unify, not all twelve, but the majority of the cities of the dodecapolis made out that the founders of the different cities all came from the royal family of Athens, the family of king Kodros. They give him a place to sleep and I believe he rests there, and the next day he stays with them and dines. They include the bath, the feast, the questioning of the guest, and the offer of transportation. Athena makes him look taller, more massive, more splendid in every way. This deferential gesture is simple and eloquent, expressing as it does the proper relationship of the future king to the great hero of the past. If these episodes demonstrate the successful navigation of the guest-host relationship, then the episode between Odysseus and the Cyclops demonstrates its failure.
Miletus's good relations with Chios, which still held at the time of Alyattes c. What followed this era was a brief Dark Age; literacy disappeared and legends were born. To return to the Homeric Question, the crux of the matter is the identity of the Phaeacians, the fabulous people of the Odyssey who are Odysseus's final stopping point before his return home. Cronus a primordial god who ruled the world until dethroned by his son Zeus. If you recall, Homer provided us with a backstory to the Phaeacians: they escaped the man-eating Cyclopes to eventually find their new home in Scheria. It is interesting to note that all excavations have yet to reveal the bodies of the victims which have led many, including myself, to speculate that a mass exodus of Minoans sought refuge elsewhere before the climax of the natural disaster. Was the volcano on Thera the Cyclopes the Phaeacians escaped from? Their name in fact made them descendants of both figures, whose two names are dialectal variants of the same name: Neileos is an Ionic form, and Neleus an Aeolic form.
When Odysseus returns to ask for help again the second time, Aeolus refuses to intervene, saying that Odysseus has been cursed by the gods. But Poseidon considers their behavior impious: by helping Odysseus, they impede Poseidon's anger, and therefore pit their human wills against his divine will. But there is more to Nestor's role in the Odyssey. These books serve to return Odysseus, at last, to Ithaca; in addition, they further consider two of the most important themes in the epic: hospitality and loyalty. Amphitres, the other contender, failed in his attempt to defeat a foreign foe, which in our late source is the Aegean island of Melos, but most likely was rather Melia, the semi-Carian city near the site of Panionion. There is also a diachronic dimension to the semantics of Nestor's name to be taken into account.
Athena delights in his grace and cunning: these qualities, she says, are the reason she can't help but stick by him. We envision the law as cold and objective, but in this world the instruments of the law are emotional and capricious. The king of the Phaeacians at that time on Scheria was Alkinoos, son of Phaeax, son of Poseidon, who ruled with a council of 12 archons that were equal to him in governing. He was very wise which shows she helped him because she was the goddess of wisdom and war. Similarly, Athena weaves plots throughout the poem, and Odysseus himself is said to weave plots and stratagems.
Odysseus cries to hear the tale. When everyone arrives, Alcinous asks his people to bring a ship down to the sea and to find a crew of fifty-two men to transport Odysseus home; everyone else, he says, should gather to feast and celebrate. Importance of hospitality He is the example throughout the epic poem of a good guest. They are too deliberately paired not to have a meaning. Two other members of the Panionic league, Erythrai and Chios, had a breach between them which, like that between Samos and Miletus, may have originated in the Lelantine war. This episode demonstrates again the correlation between hospitality and the revelation of true identity.