First two volumes first published 1619. Philip acquitted himself well as regent, taking an increasingly active role when advisors such as Cobos and Z ú ñiga died. Philip only introduced to Spain the reforms stated at Trent if they did not harm his authority but the bulk of the decisions at Trent were all but irrelevant to a country that was solidly catholic. Since Philip's older brother, the Duke of Burgundy, was second in line to the French throne after his father, there was little expectation that either he or his younger brother , would ever rule over France. Meanwhile, England had also begun to challenge Spain's dominance of the sea trade, especially with the Americas.
Further Reading Although it does not emphasize social and economic issues as much as contemporary studies do, Roger Bigelow Merriman, The Rise of the Spanish Empire in the Old World and in the New, vol. Relations with Rome During the 1545-1563 there was usually strong doctrinal accord between the papacy and Spanish bishops. He met Charles in Brussels in 1549 and toured the to be formally recognized as heir. All these, together with plagues and the defeat of the Armada, were crushing blows—economically, socially, and psychologically. Strongly devoted to the , Philip acted to strengthen the power of Catholic rulers at a time of increasing dissent from Protestant factions in Europe. At that time the English particularly disliked the Spanish as they were seen as England's main rivals in Europe. The young king was soon tested by his dynasty's enemies.
The Armada was forced to cut its anchor cables in order to escape quickly, thus breaking formation. He defeated the Greeks, and the following winter a meeting of all the Greek states except Sparta was held at Corinth. To consolidate his empire and afford protection for his holdings in the , Charles then married Philip to of England, the Catholic queen of a basically Protestant country. Marriages played no small part in some of these changes in his power. His son Don Carlos was abnormal, mentally and physically, and on no account fit to become a responsible ruler.
For many centuries, the Muslims were viewed as an archenemy to the Europeans, who saw them as a threat to Christian dominance of Europe. Reinforced by his aloof nature, this shortcoming hindered communication with those who did not speak Spanish, and he soon acquired a reputation for arrogance with his Austrian relatives. By this time Elizabeth had prepared the English fleet and organized a small but dedicated land army. France, the principal opponent of Emperor Charles's ambition, was likewise the chief rival of Philip's Spain. Philip's military campaigns created severe financial problems and by 1596 Spain was bankrupt. Shortly before the Battle of Chaeronea, the king of Persia had been assassinated, and the instability of the Persian Empire made it a good time for Philip to attack the Persians. A year later, in 337, the Sunedrion, or Congress, of the League of Corinth declared war on Persia, and Philip sent an advance force to prepare the way for an invasion; however, internal politics got in the way.
In 336 Philip was assassinated by a fellow Macedonian, as a result of court intrigues and jealousies. Though Spain was stronger and wealthier than England, Philip did not succeed in crushing English power. Some shows this, but it was probably too much eating and drinking that killed Don Carlos. He was industrious, tenacious, devoted to study, serious, simple-mannered, generous to those who served him, the friend and patron of arts. Documentos para la Historia de Canarias. The Armada expedition is brilliantly recounted by Garrett Mattingly in The Armada 1959 , one of the finest and most interesting products of modern historical scholarship. The policy of centralization had as model the under and was strongly supported by politicians such as and the.
Philip did not at first approve of Mary or her schemes. This led him into a series of lengthy conflicts, most notably those with England, in which he tried unsuccessfully to conquer the country with the Spanish Armada, and the war with the Dutch rebels of the Netherlands. The theory supposes that Philip V hoped that by abdicating the Spanish crown he could circumvent the Treaty and succeed to the French throne. At midnight on August 7 die English set fire to eight ships and aimed them at the Spanish fleet. This personal stamp of authority during Philip's reign was in sharp contrast to the era of minister-favorites in 17th-century Spain. In 1559 the war with France was brought to an end by the Treaty of , which was sealed by Philip's marriage to. In 1585 she openly supported the Dutch rebels.
Reluctant to sever his tie with England, Philip proposed marriage to England's new sovereign, his sister-in-law, , but his offer was diplomatically declined. Deeply suspicious that a foreigner had designs on the English crown, they insisted that Mary agree to severe restrictions on Philip's power. Wyatt was taken to the and on 15th March he was convicted of high treason and sentenced to death. The succession was thrown into doubt when Philip's son Don Carlos showed himself unfit to inherit the throne; when evidence came to light implicating Don Carlos was plotting against Philip, the king had him arrested. Charles V prepared his son carefully for the responsibility of ruling an empire. His brother Ferdinand, who already ruled their ancestral lands in Austria, succeeded him as the Holy Roman Emperor. The costly adventures abroad were punctuated by abrasive relations between Philip and his Spanish domains over taxation and jurisdiction; a diminishing flow of silver from the American mines; a decreasing market for Spanish goods; a severe inflation; several declarations of government bankruptcy; and an agricultural crisis that sent thousands into the cities and left vast areas uncultivated.
He would be king in name only; he would not enjoy any of the traditional powers of an English ruler. After Mary's death 1558 , Philip offered his hand to her sister, of England, but he was refused. The two barely tolerated each other. Taken together and exacerbated by the strain of incessant warfare, they shook Spain to its roots. There were several attempts by Protestant to overthrow Mary. In 1202 he summoned John to his court to answer a charge made against him, but John refused to come, and Philip therefore declared John's holdings in France forfeit, occupying Normandy and all English lands north of the Loire River. Despite being such a large empire, Spain during this era was fractured and decentralized.
With the problems of communication in Philip's far-flung empire, once a decision was made it could not be undone. The second half of Philip's reign was dominated by the revolt of the see also. Philip appointed 1567 the duque de to replace his half-sister, , as governor, but when Alba's harsh methods failed to quell the revolt, Philip supported the more conciliatory tactics of Alba's successors—Luis de Zúñiga y , , and Alessandro , duke of Parma—who managed to reconquer the S Netherlands approximately present-day Belgium. Spain had already entered into a period of sharp decline at his death on Sept. Through shrewd diplomacy and military skill, Farnese forced the rebels onto the defensive, and perhaps only English intervention negotiated in the 1585 Treaty of Nonsuch thwarted Philip's reconquest of the Dutch provinces.
In 1566, the Calvinist preachers incited violence against Catholicism. By 1565, Éboli's influence waned while Philip elevated Diego de Espinosa 1502 —1572 to president of the Council of Castile, inquisitor-general, and cardinal. Since the Dutch were subsidized by the English, and since Spanish supply ships could not safely move through the , Philip concluded that a conquest of England was necessary for the pacification of the Netherlands. When Mary died later that year. Some Athenians, notably the intellectual Isocrates, saw Philip as the true leader of a united Greece and urged him to use persuasive tactics to unify Greece for a renewed campaign against Persia. It was under his reign that Spain reached the height of its influence and power, and also of its artistic, literary, and musical excellence. He made the Crown more powerful than any feudal lord, more than tripled the royal domain, and turned the between France and England in favor of France.