Thus it is confirmed that people believed in female energy as the source of all creation. Interpretations of these animal motifs include signification of membership in a clan, elite class, or kin structure. Archaeologists have discovered several different cities, one built over the other, each built a little less skillfully. There were underground drains for the streets and there drains were shielded by stone slabs. Some structures are thought to have been granaries.
The houses had several storeys. Barley and palm-date were also familiar. Previously, it was also believed that the decline of the Harappan civilization led to an interruption of urban life in the Indian subcontinent. Town Planning In Indus Valley Civilization The most characteristic feature of the Harappan Civilization was its urbanization. Conclusion Modern archaeologists have been impressed by the perfectness of the town planning system of the Indus Valley civilization. Harappans demonstrated advanced architecture with dockyards, granaries, warehouses, brick platforms, and protective walls.
As the story is told in the form of dance, these dance styles can actually be called dance-dramas, the only difference is the absence of dialogues. A number of seals with Indus script have been also found in Mesopotamian sites. In fact careful planning of the town, fine drainage system, well arranged water supply system prove that all possible steps were carefully adopted to make the town ideal and comfortable for the citizenry. The city was the heart of the civilization. No Temples There are no traces of temple architecture or other religious places, yet the people practiced religion. The Harappan civilization is sometimes called the Mature Harappan culture to distinguish it from these cultures.
How this art could have been, can be guessed from the paintings on stone surfaces found at Ajanta and Ellora which are said to have been done in around 400 A. Each home had its own private drinking well and its own private bathroom. This may suggest that religious ceremonies, if any, may have been largely confined to individual homes, small temples, or the open air. Ordinary buildings had little ventilation arrangements, as doors and windows were rarely fixed in the outer walls. The old path of the Ravi River runs to the north of the site, which has since shifted six miles further north. Jean-Francois Jarrige argues for an independent origin of Mehrgarh.
Another town of this stage was found at Kalibangan in India on the Hakra River. It was located in modern-day India and Pakistan, and covered an area as large as Western Europe. The cities grew up according to a set scheme. The post-sangam period 2nd century-6th century saw many great Tamil epics being written, including Cilappatikaram or Silappadhikaram , Manimegalai, Jeevaga-chintamani, Valayapati and Kundalakesi. Religion: From the various articles discovered, one can safely conclude that the people believed in image worshipping. Most city-dwellers were artisans and merchants grouped together in distinct neighborhoods. Each was built around a courtyard, with windows overlooking the courtyard.
A high pillared hall having an area of 80 sq. Lanes were chocked with klins. In Egypt and Mesopotamia dried or baked bricks were used. But recent studies indicate that food production was largely indigenous to the Indus Valley. Many scholars came to believe in an Indo-Aryan Migration theory stating that the Harappan culture was assimilated during a migration of the Aryan people into northwest India.
All the streets and roads ran from north to south and from east to west so that they could be cleaned automatically by the prevailing winds. The Great bath had 8 ft thick outer walls. The residents then migrated towards the Ganges basin in the east, where they established smaller villages and isolated farms. The rivers might have changed their courses which would make irrigation impossible and ruin the city. Another figurine in bronze, known as the Dancing Girl, is only 11 centimeters high and shows a female figure in a pose that suggests the presence of some choreographed dance form enjoyed by members of the civilization. An extensive canal network, used for irrigation, has however also been discovered by H.
It is higher on north side with the summit at 45-50 ft above the plain. The rich folk lived in large houses with many rooms while the common people had to live in small tenements or little houses with two rooms. Epic Poetry Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written on the Indian sub-continent. This technique of painting had also spread to central Asia and South-east Asia. Among them are: Rupar, Rakhigarhi, Sothi, Kalibangan, and Ganwariwala. That Music in ancient India was given considerable recognition is illustrated by the fact that Saraswati, the Indian goddess of learning is shown to be holding a musical instrument Veena in her hand.
In places where these bricks would come into contact with drinking water, to avoid contamination of water, burnt bricks are used. Doors were placed at the sides of the houses but not the front; doors were made of wood. Other trade goods included terracotta pots, gold, silver, metals, beads, flints for making tools, seashells, pearls, and colored gemstones, such as lapis lazuli and turquoise. Nevertheless, this area was not an insurmountable obstacle for the dispersal of the Neolithic. The advanced architecture of the Harappans is shown by their impressive dockyards, granaries, warehouses, brick platforms, and protective walls. The largest number of sites are in , , , , , states in India, and , , and provinces in Pakistan.
The complex has a large quadrangle in the center with galleries and rooms on all sides. No parallels to these mass-produced inscriptions are known in any other early ancient civilisations. The figures are generally engraved on ivory, soap stone, leather, metal and wood. It is also believed that the people might have had faith in amulets, demons, magical rituals, spirits and charms. They were told of an ancient ruined city near the lines, called Harappa. The city of Mohenjo-daro contains the Great Bath, which may have been a large, public bathing and social area.